How do I reference web pages?

Example - web page where you can identify a personal author

(Scroll down for an example with an organisation as the author)


Example, including punctuation

Author(s) (capitals)

Mulvey, S.

Year of publication


Title of the web page (italics)

Chernobyl's continuing hazards.


URL (address of web page)

Retrieved from


The citation in your text will be

(Mulvey, 2006)

If a direct quote, you will not usually be able to give a page number, unless it is a PDF document.

If you have used the author's name in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if necessary, is placed after it in brackets, eg

Mulvey (2006) suggests that ...

Web pages rarely have page numbers. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation, even if you have quoted directly. You may not be able to find any date (see below).

Reference list/bibliography:

Mulvey, S. (2006). Chernobyl's continuing hazards. Retrieved from http://news/

Associated examples

Web page where there is no date and you cannot identify a personal author, but is associated with named organisation

University of Leipzig, Department of Psychology. (n.d.). History of Psychology in Leipzig, Germany. Retrieved from

(University of Leipzig, Department of Psychology, n.d.)

Web page where you cannot identify a personal author but there is date

University of Florida, College of Medicine. (2017). Patient care. Retrieved from

(University of Florida, College of Medicine, 2017)

Should I use Wikipedia as one of my references?

No. It is not regarded as an academic resource and you could lose marks. 

Find another reference for the point you are making. If you are unsure how to find suitable journal articles why not reserve a place on one of our library research skills sessions.

What about referencing social media and online videos?

There are separate styles for referencing social media and videos including Youtube videos. See the examples in the relevant Examples: A-Z pages.