Computer software

Note: Citations and references are not needed for standard software that is widely distributed such as Microsoft Office, SPSS, R, SAS, etc.
Do provide citations and references for specialised software or programmes with limited distribution. Some software may be associated with an author(s) who should be cited also.


Example, including punctuation

Title of the programme (not italics)

Comprehensive Meta-Analysis



City of publication

Englewood, NJ:




The citation in your text will be

(Biostat, Englewood, NJ)

Note: Give year only if available

Reference list/bibliography:

Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Englewood, NJ: Biotat

Example with author, year and downloaded from website:

Honaker, J., King, G. & Blackwell, M. (2011). Amelia II [computer software]. Retrieved from