Unpublished works

Example – unpublished paper

(Scroll down for associated examples)


Example, including punctuation


Doe, J.

Year of work


Title of the manuscript (italics)

How to Take Over the World.


Unpublished manuscript.




The citation in your text will be

(Doe, 2018)

or, if you have quoted directly,

(Doe, 2018, p. 16).

If you have used the author's name in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if necessary, is placed after it in brackets, eg

Doe (2018) suggests that ...

or, if you have quoted directly,

Doe (2018, p. 16) states that ...


Reference list/bibliography:

Doe, J. (2018). How to Take Over the World. Unpublished manuscript.

Associated examples

Unpublished manuscript with university (example from the APA Manual):

Blackwell, E. & Concord, P. J. (2003). A Five-Dimensional Measure of Drinking Motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

(Blackwell & Concord, 2003)

Manuscript submitted to a journal for publication (example from the APA Manual):

Ting, J. Y., Florsheim, P. & Huang, W. (2008). Mental health help-seeking in ethnic minority populations: A theoretical perspective. Manuscript submitted for publication.

(Ting, Florsheim & Huang, 2008)

Informally published or work published by self on website, not dated

Ajzen, I. (n.d.). Designing a TPB Intervention. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html

(Ajzen, n.d.)…