How does APA differ from RGU Harvard?

This page is designed to help people who are familiar with RGU Harvard format and are now moving to APA format.

At first glance, APA format seems fairly similar to RGU Harvard format. It’s tempting to think that the only differences are that names aren’t in capitals in APA and there are brackets around the years. But in fact there are many more differences, and you shouldn’t assume that those two changes are all there are. Below are some of the main differences.

While getting used to APA format, you should learn the format for each type of source. Try looking at the relevant pages of this guide.

 

Differences in citations in the text

APA 6th edition Format

RGU Harvard format

If one or two authors: Name all each time

If 3-5 authors: Name all the first time, and shorten to the first et al. on subsequent times

If 6 or more authors: Shorten to the first et al. every time

In citations in text, all authors are named unless there are four or more, in which case it is shortened to the first et al. every time.

More use is made of the “&” sign. When citing in brackets, “&” goes before the final author’s name, as in (Strack & Deutsch, 2004). However this is only used in brackets – in sentence the word “and” is used as in: Strack and Deutsch (2004) proposed that there are two components to the mind….

The word “and” (NOT the & sign) goes before final authors’ name, as in (Strack and Deutsch 2004). This applies whether citing in brackets or in sentence.

When citing in brackets, there is a comma before the year, as in (Rogers, 1961)

When citing in brackets, there is NO comma before the  year, as in (Rogers 1961)

 

Differences in reference list

APA 6th edition format

RGU Harvard format

Author’s names are not in capitals in reference list

Names in reference list are all in capitals

Brackets around the years/dates, e.g. (2002)

No brackets around years

If up to seven authors: List all names

If 8 or more authors: List the first six, then an ellipsis (….) and then the final author.

All authors are given unless there are four or more, in which case it is shortened to the first et al.

The “&” sign is used before the final author’s name

The word “and” is used before the final author’s name

Journal’s volume number goes in italics after the journal’s name

Volume number is not in italics

Issue number of journal (which goes in brackets after the volume number) is optional (as long as journal has continuous pagination, which is nearly all journals)

Issue number of journal should be given in brackets

DOI numbers are given for articles that can be accessed online, such as journal articles (however DOI numbers are optional for student work).

DOI numbers are not included

In web addresses, “Retrieved from” goes before the URL, with no colon after “from”

“Accessible from:” goes before the URL

After a web address, no date of retrieval is given (although it was in the old APA 5th edition).

Date you accessed the site/material is given in square brackets after the URL

No “pp”. before page numbers when referencing a journal article.

“pp.” is given before page numbers when referencing a journal article

Order of info to reference a chapter in edited book is different. See the “Chapter in Edited Book” tab in this guide for details.

Different order to APA format.

Different info given in reference for various types of less common sources – check pages on this guide

Different info given in reference for various types of less common sources – check pages on this guide