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Subjects, Services and Resources

OpenAIR: Home

This guide will give you an introduction to OpenAIR, RGU's open access institutional repository.
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Researcher Guides

OpenAIR

OpenAIR is RGU's open access institutional repository - a database of outputs produced by RGU's own researchers. It makes these freely available to everyone online and is the University's primary means of supporting the Open Access movement.

 


Adding Content

 

What Can Be Added?

OpenAIR is a database of outputs created by RGU's researchers. This includes all RGU staff, research students (i.e. DBA, DInfSci, DPP, DPT, EngD, MPhil, MRes, MSc by Research, PhD) and any other person whose research has been supported by RGU (e.g. visiting academics).

The repository can hold a variety of media, both textual and non-textual. Content typically falls into the following output types, for which further details are available in the repository policy:

  • Artefacts, designs and exhibitions
  • Books and book chapters
  • Conference publications
  • Journal articles
  • Posters and presentations
  • Project websites (external links only)
  • Reports
  • Research data (including datasets and protocols)
  • Theses

How Are Outputs Added?

The OpenAIR team handle the upload of new content to the repository. All queries about getting research outputs uploaded should therefore be directed to publications@rgu.ac.uk.

 

For Publications

Including books, book chapters, conference publications and journal articles. You should contact the OpenAIR team as soon as possible after being accepted for publication. This helps to ensure compliance with the various requirements of funders, the Research Excellence Framework (REF) and RGU. In general, we require the "Author Accepted Manuscript" version of your work, which is the document that you should have at the point when you receive notification of acceptance from the publisher. Further advice on identifying the Author Accepted Manuscript is given in the FAQs section.

For Theses

You generally do not need to give the OpenAIR team a copy of your thesis, as this should be passed to us by Governance and Academic Affairs shortly after graduation. Embargoed theses are not passed to the OpenAIR team until the embargo has ended. If you are concerned that your thesis has not appeared online, then please contact the team and we will investigate. We are also gradually digitising our older theses. If you would like yours to be prioritised for digitisation, please let us know.

For Research Data

You should contact the team to discuss the nature of your data and requirements. Certain types of research data necessitate special considerations, so we may need additional information before we can upload anything.

For Projects

OpenAIR now offers project collections. These display all outputs from a single project together, when those outputs might otherwise be dispersed across the repository. If you are interested in creating a project collection, the first step is to contact the team with a complete list of citations for the outputs involved. We will then liaise with you while we set up the project collection, to ensure that it is created according to your requirements.


Using The Repository

 

There are several ways to locate and discover content on OpenAIR, all of which can be accessed from the homepage.

 

General Search

There is a general search box, which allows you to search the entire repository for the keywords you specify. The results page for the general search also enables you to apply "advanced filters", which help you to narrow down the results of your initial search.

Browse Filters

There is a selection of filters, which allow you to search the entire repository based on a specific type of filter such as author name, item type, date and subject term. In addition to these, the rest of the right-hand menu (in the "Discover" section) provides some examples of specific authors, item types and subject terms, as well as the dates of all items in the repository by decade.

Browse Collections

Items on OpenAIR belong to one or more collections, which themselves belong to "communities" (groups of collections). To browse among items within a specific community or collection, you can either: click through to the desired collection using the community links on the left-hand side of the homepage, or click the "Communities and collections" link in the right-hand menu. This will take you through to a community hierarchy, which enables you to navigate directly to the community or collection you want to view.

Browse collections (+)

 

Viewing Statistics

OpenAIR currently supports Google Analytics statistics. To see the statistics associated with a specific record on OpenAIR, open the record in question and locate the "View Google Analytics Statistics" button at the bottom of the right-hand menu. The statistics available in this link show the total number of page views and item downloads per month.

Unfortunately, the repository does not currently display statistics covering all of a single researcher's work. However, if you would like to know these sorts of statistics, please get in touch with the team at publications@rgu.ac.uk and we will be able to compile them for you.

Requesting Full Text Documents

In order to ensure compliance with the requirements of the REF and certain funding bodies, some publications will be uploaded to OpenAIR under an embargo. The embargo duration is determined by the publisher. Items that are under an embargo are still visible on the repository to help people discover them, but the full-text document is kept restricted.

In order to access an embargoed document, you must click on the padlock document link in the OpenAIR record (see the example below). This will open up a "request a copy" form.

Document link in OpenAIR (+)

 

 

Once the OpenAIR team receive a request, we will forward this onto the RGU researcher who authored the publication, so that they can provide an individual copy in line with publisher permissions.

OAI-PMH


OAI-PMH

 

Open Archives Initiative LogoThe Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is an international standard that makes it easier to share the content of open repositories, such as RGU’s open access institutional repository OpenAIR. OAI-PMH involves information about both the repository itself as well as the content it holds – this information is referred to as “metadata”. Using the protocol, repositories can make this metadata available in a way that is consistent across institutions, content types and repository software platforms. This allows both human and machine users to query and retrieve that metadata systematically.

Sending a request for metadata to a repository through OAI-PMH involves using hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) addresses that consist of the repository’s “base URL” and one of six possible requests.

 

Base URL

The base URL for RGU’s repository (OpenAIR) is:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider

 

Requests

GetRecord

The “GetRecord” request retrieves the metadata record for a single output on the repository, using the record’s OAI identifier. For example:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=GetRecord&identifier=oai:rgu-repository.worktribe.com:227831&&metadataPrefix=oai_dc

This example retrieves the metadata for the record that has OAI identifier “oai:rgu-repository.worktribe.com:227831”. Additionally, the record is requested in “oai_dc” format, which is the default format for all our repository content.

Identify

The “Identify” request provides information about the repository as a whole, including the admin e-mail, the repository name and the various policies for content, submission, metadata and data. It is used as follows:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=Identify

ListIdentifiers

The “ListIdentifiers” request retrieves the OAI identifiers and OAI set information for all records on the repository in a specific format. For example:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=ListIdentifiers&metadataPrefix=oai_dc

This example retrieves a list of the identifiers and sets for all repository records that are available in “oai_dc” format.

ListMetadataFormats

The “ListMetadataFormats” request retrieves a list of all possible metadata formats that can be requested from the repository. It is used as follows:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=ListMetadataFormats

At the point of writing, OpenAIR has records available in “oai_dc”, “rioxx” and “uketd_dc” formats. The descriptions and schema of these formats are available in links supplied in the results of the “ListMetadataFormats” request.

ListRecords

The “ListRecords” request retrieves the metadata for all records on the repository in a given format. For example:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=ListRecords&metadataPrefix=oai_dc

This example retrieves the metadata for all records that are available in “oai_dc” format.

ListSets

The “ListSets” request retrieves a list of all sets of records that exist on the repository. It is used as follows:

http://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/oaiprovider?verb=ListSets

At the point of writing, OpenAIR has records available in sets based on output type, as well as two sets of records intended for specific harvesting purposes – the European repository OpenAIRE, and RIOXX. Any single record on the repository may belong to multiple sets.

 

Existing OAI-PMH Users

A number of existing third parties are known to use OAI-PMH to retrieve information from OpenAIR. This includes:

From time to time, there may be changes in how our repository works with OAI-PMH. If you use OAI-PMH to retrieve information from our repository and would like to be kept informed of changes but are not listed above, please feel free to get in touch with us at publications@rgu.ac.uk.


FAQs

 

Why use OpenAIR?

OpenAIR is the primary means for researchers at RGU to make their work open access. Making research open access is important for a variety of reasons:

  • It benefits society by enabling people with low- or no budget to access the products of research, and helping to demonstrate the value of publicly-funded research to those who pay for it.
  • It benefits researchers by increasing the discoverability of their work, which means wider audiences and more citations.
  • It is now a requirement of many funding bodies and also the Research Excellence Framework.

Useful Links

Benefits of Open Access

Funder and REF Requirements for Open Access

What can be put on OpenAIR?

OpenAIR is a database of outputs created by RGU's researchers. This includes all RGU staff, research students (i.e. DBA, DInfSci, DPP, DPT, EngD, MPhil, MRes, MSc by Research, PhD) and any other person whose research has been supported by RGU (e.g. visiting academics).

The repository can hold a variety of media, both textual and non-textual. Content typically falls into the following output types, for which further details are available in the repository policy:

  • Artefacts, designs and exhibitions
  • Books and book chapters
  • Conference publications
  • Journal articles
  • Posters and presentations
  • Project websites (external links only)
  • Reports
  • Research data (including datasets and protocols) - see also our guide on other aspects of data management and sharing.
  • Theses

Can I still get published if my working paper is on OpenAIR?

It is generally a good idea to know in advance the potential journal to which you intend to submit your work, so that the OpenAIR team can double-check the publisher's permissions around working papers for the specific journal. If we are allowed to upload the working paper, then you should always inform the publisher of the existence of the OpenAIR version at the point of submission. Additionally, once published, we can also include a link to the published version on OpenAIR. We have obtained information on the policies of the following specific publishers:

Academy of Management

  • Academy of Management will not take to review any submissions that are already available on OpenAIR. However, they are happy for authors to temporarily withdraw the working paper from open access during peer review, and then to re-upload it once it has been accepted by the publisher.

 

Elsevier

  • Elsevier do not consider working papers to be a form of "prior publication" and will still accept for consideration any journal article submissions that are based on openly available working papers. Specific journals may have a different approach, though.

 

Emerald

  • Emerald are not clear on their approach to working papers and it is probably better to avoid putting your working paper on OpenAIR if you intend to publish with them. However, they do state that they will consider for publication anything which has previously been presented only at a conference or meeting.

 

IEEE

  • IEEE refer only to conference papers in their policies, rather than working papers. However, they say that they will consider for publication any submissions that are based on conference papers, as long as the publisher is informed at the point of submission and there is a clear difference in content between the conference version and the journal article version.

 

SAGE

  • SAGE will consider for publication any journal article submissions which are based on working papers that have previously been made available on OpenAIR. The publisher should be made aware of the connection to the working paper at the point of submission. However, conference papers will only be considered for publication if they are not already openly available or published.

 

Springer

  • Springer will consider for publication any submissions which are based on working papers that have previously been made available on OpenAIR. A link to the published version should be added to the OpenAIR record after publication.

 

Taylor and Francis

  • Taylor and Francis are not clear on their approach to working papers, but they will consider for publication any submissions which are based on conference papers that have previously been presented or published as part of conference proceedings. They publisher should be informed at the point of submission and the conference organisers should also be contacted to confirm that they grant permission to publish elsewhere.

 

Wiley

  • Wiley journals take different approaches to working papers. For example, most biomedical journals will not publish any submissions that are based on open access working papers; however, journals for other disciplines may still consider such submissions. It is therefore necessary to check the policy of the individual journal.

 

Can I still get published if my thesis is on OpenAIR?

Generally you should not submit your thesis for publication verbatim; however, work based on theses that have already been made available in OpenAIR is usually accepted for consideration by publishers. You should always inform the publisher that your submission to them is based on work that is already publicly available and provide them with a link to the record on OpenAIR. We have obtained information on the policies of the following specific publishers:

Academy of Management

  • Academy of Management will not publish any submissions which significantly overlap in content with a thesis that is already publicly available online.

 

British Medical Journal (BMJ)

  • The BMJ will consider for publication any submissions that have already been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR, providing that:
    • The OpenAIR version is published under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence (this will need to be requested specifically from the OpenAIR team before we upload it, as we normally use a less restrictive licence);
    • The submission clearly indicates which parts have already been published and includes a link to the OpenAIR version;
    • The OpenAIR record is edited to include a link to the published BMJ version and a statement indicating that it has been published in the BMJ.

 

Elsevier

  • Elsevier will consider for publication any journal article submissions that have previously been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR. It is unclear whether they take the same approach to book submissions.

 

Emerald

  • Emerald will not publish any submissions which are verbatim reproductions of work that has already been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR; however, they will consider for publication any submissions that are developed and expanded from such work. Additionally, the publisher should be made aware of the connection to the thesis at the point of submission, and the submitted manuscript must include appropriate attribution to the original thesis.

 

IEEE

  • IEEE do not have a specific policy for theses; however, they require the author to inform the editor at the point of submission, if the submitted work significantly overlaps in content with a thesis that is already publicly available on OpenAIR. The editor makes the final decision as to whether to consider the work for publication.

 

SAGE

  • SAGE will not publish any submissions which significantly overlap in content with a thesis that has already been made publicly available on OpenAIR; however, they will consider for publication any submissions that are developed and expanded from such work. Additionally, the publisher should be made aware of the connection to the thesis at the point of submission, and the submitted manuscript must include appropriate attribution to the original thesis.

 

Springer

  • Springer will consider for publication any submissions that have previously been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR.

 

Taylor and Francis

  • Taylor and Francis will consider for publication any submissions that have previously been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR. Additionally, the publisher should be made aware of the connection to the thesis at the point of submission.

 

Wiley

  • Wiley will consider for publication any submissions that have previously been made publicly available as part of a thesis on OpenAIR.

 

How do I upload my outputs?

As a general rule, you should contact the team at publications@rgu.ac.uk when you would like to add content to OpenAIR. For further details on what we require for different types of publications, see the information given earlier in this guide.

How do I upload my thesis?

You will not be able to upload your own thesis, as uploads can only be done by the OpenAIR team. You generally do not need to give the team a copy of your thesis, as this should be passed to us by Governance and Academic Affairs shortly after graduation. Embargoed theses are not passed to us until the embargo has ended. If you are concerned that your thesis has not appeared online, then please contact the team and we will investigate.

We are also gradually digitising our older theses. If you would like yours to be prioritised for digitisation, please let us know.

What file formats can be uploaded?

OpenAIR aims to store its contents in file formats that are as easy to use as possible, by as many people as possible, for as far into the future as possible. This means that we try to avoid proprietary formats (i.e. file types that require someone to purchase a specific piece of software) and instead prefer to store files in standard formats.

The vast majority of files on OpenAIR are in .pdf format. If you do not have a PDF version of your work, do not worry; the team will be able to do the conversion for you.

For research data, the following list of recommended file formats is taken from the UK Data Archive:

Type of data Acceptable formats for sharing, reuse and preservation Other acceptable formats for data preservation

Quantitative tabular data with extensive metadata
a dataset with variable labels, code labels, and defined missing values, in addition to the matrix of data

  • SPSS portable format (.por)
  • delimited text and command ('setup') file (SPSS, Stata, SAS, etc.) containing metadata information
  • some structured text or mark-up file containing metadata information, e.g. DDI XML file

proprietary formats of statistical packages e.g. SPSS (.sav), Stata (.dta)
MS Access (.mdb/.accdb)

Quantitative tabular data with minimal metadata
a matrix of data with or without column headings or variable names, but no other metadata or labelling

  • comma-separated values (CSV) file (.csv)
  • tab-delimited file (.tab)
  • including delimited text of given character set with SQL data definition statements where appropriate
  • delimited text of given character set - only characters not present in the data should be used as delimiters (.txt)
  • widely-used formats, e.g. MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx), MS Access (.mdb/.accdb), dBase (.dbf) and OpenDocument Spreadsheet (.ods)

Geospatial data
vector and raster data

  • ESRI Shapefile (essential - .shp, .shx, .dbf, optional - .prj, .sbx, .sbn)
  • geo-referenced TIFF (.tif, .tfw)
  • CAD data (.dwg)
  • tabular GIS attribute data
  • ESRI Geodatabase format (.mdb)
  • MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif) for vector data
  • Keyhole Mark-up Language (KML) (.kml)
  • Adobe Illustrator (.ai), CAD data (.dxf or .svg)
  • binary formats of GIS and CAD packages

Qualitative data
textual

  • eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) text according to an appropriate Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema (.xml)
  • Rich Text Format (.rtf)
  • plain text data, ASCII (.txt)
  • Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) (.html)
  • widely-used proprietary formats, e.g. MS Word (.doc/.docx)
  • some proprietary/software-specific formats, e.g. NUD*IST, NVivo and ATLAS.ti
Digital image data TIFF version 6 uncompressed (.tif)
  • JPEG (.jpeg, .jpg) but only if created in this format
  • TIFF (other versions) (.tif, .tiff)
  • Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF/A, PDF) (.pdf)
  • standard applicable RAW image format (.raw)
  • Photoshop files (.psd)
Digital audio data

Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) (.flac)

  • MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (.mp3) but only if created in this format
  • Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) (.aif)
  • Waveform Audio Format (WAV) (.wav)
Digital video data
  • MPEG-4 (.mp4)
  • motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2)
 
Documentation and scripts
  • Rich Text Format (.rtf)
  • PDF/A or PDF (.pdf)
  • HTML (.htm)
  • OpenDocument Text (.odt)
  • plain text (.txt)
  • some widely-used proprietary formats, e.g. MS Word (.doc/.docx) or MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx)
  • XML marked-up text (.xml) according to an appropriate DTD or schema, e.g. XHMTL 1.0

What is the "Author Accepted Manuscript" (AAM)?

In general, when we talk about the "Author Accepted Manuscript" (AAM) we are referring to the version of the document at the point when it has incorporated any changes from the peer-review process and been formally accepted by the publisher, but before the publisher has started applying their logos and typesetting. This version is also sometimes called just the "accepted version" or "post-print". The following diagram of a typical publication process may help to illustrate this:

Identifying the AAM can sometimes be difficult - publishers may call it something else, or their publication process may be different to that shown in the diagram above. The table below lists the terminology used by several common publishers and gives examples of a typical AAM from that publisher, which can be compared with the same article in proof form and the final published version (also known as the "Version of Record", or VOR). We have not been able to obtain examples of proof versions for all publishers, but will hopefully add these in future.

Publisher name Terminology and notes Example AAM Example Proof Example VOR
Elsevier

"Accepted Manuscript" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have an "Accepted manuscript" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Elsevier AAM showing coversheet and first page. Example of Elsevier proof, showing first two pages. Example of Elsevier VOR, showing first two pages.
Emerald

"Author accepted manuscript" and "post-print" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have a "For peer review" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Emerald AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Emerald VOR, showing first two pages.
IEEE

"Accepted version" and "Pre-print version" for AAM.

Usually has no page numbers or IEEE markings, but otherwise may include publisher formatting.

Example of IEEE AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of IEEE VOR, showing first two pages.
SAGE

"Version 2" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have a "For peer review" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of SAGE AAM, showing coversheet and first page.   Example of SAGE VOR, showing first two pages.
Springer

"Author's accepted manuscript" and "Author's accepted version" for AAM.

Usually does not feature final page numbers, publisher logos or final layout, but may otherwise feature publisher formatting.

Example of Springer AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Springer VOR, showing first two pages.
Taylor and Francis

"Accepted manuscript" for AAM.

May have an "Accepted manuscript" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Taylor and Francis AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Taylor and Francis VOR, showing first two pages.
Wiley

"Accepted version" and "Peer-reviewed version" for AAM.

Usually does not include any publisher formatting.

Example of Wiley AAM, showing first two pages. Example of Wiley Proof, showing first two pages.

Example of Wiley VOR, showing first two pages.

Links to articles used in above examples:

(Elsevier) = KAJAMA, M.N., SHEHU, H., OKON, E., ORAKWE, I. and GOBINA, E. 2016. VOC oxidation in excess of oxygen using flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. International journal of hydrogen energy [online], 41(37), pages 16529-16534. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.04.164. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1519.

(Emerald) = BAXTER, G., MARCELLA, R. AND O’SHEA, M. 2016. Members of the Scottish Parliament on Twitter: good constituency men ( and women)? Aslib journal of information management [online], 68(4), pages 428-447. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-02-2016-0010. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1452

(IEEE) = OCHEI, L.C., PETROVSKI, A. and BASS, J.M. 2016. Implementing the required degree of multitenancy isolation: a case study of cloud-hosted bug tracking system. In the Proceedings of the 13th IEEE international conference on services computing (SCC 2016), 27 June - 2 July 2016, San Francisco, USA. New Jersey: IEEE [online], pages 379-386. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1109/SCC.2016.56. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1920.

(SAGE) = CROWTHER, S., IRONSIDE, P., SPENCE, D. and SMYTHE, L. 2017. Crafting stories in hermeneutic phenomenology research: a methodological device. Qualitative health research [online], 27(6), pages 826-835. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732316656161. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1525.

(Springer) = SANI, S., WIRATUNGA, N., MASSIE, S. and COOPER, K. 2016. SelfBACK: Activity recognition for self-management of low back pain. In Bramer, M. and Petridis, M. (eds.) 2016. Research and development in intelligent systems XXXIII: incorporating applications and innovations in intelligent systems XXIV. Cham: Springer [online], pages 281-294. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47175-4. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1973.

(Taylor and Francis) = PRATHURU, A.K., FAISAL, N.H., JIHAN, S., STEEL, J.A. and NJUGUNA, J. 2017. Stress analysis at the interface of metal-to-metal adhesively bonded joints subjected to 4-point bending: finite element method. Journal of adhesion [online], 93(11), pages 855-878. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218464.2016.1172309. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1619.

(Wiley) = CRAWFORD, L. 2016. Moral legitimacy: the struggle of homeopathy in the NHS. Bioethics [online], 30(2), pages 85-95. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12227. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1583.

What if my co-author has the AAM?

The Publications Team can provide you with an e-mail template to request the accepted manuscript from your co-author. To request a copy of the template, just ask us at publications@rgu.ac.uk

What happens with embargoes?

We make sure to observe publisher's restrictions on material deposited in OpenAIR. In almost all cases, the publisher embargo only restricts open access to the full text, which means that we are still able to create a record on OpenAIR and deposit a restricted-access copy of the document before the embargo ends. This is fairly common, since funders and the REF require items to be deposited fairly quickly after they have been published, or accepted for publication.

While an item is embargoed, users of the repository must submit a request for a copy of the document. These requests are received by the OpenAIR team and redirected to the relevant researcher. This therefore gives our researchers the option of providing a personal copy of their work, which most publishers permit.

Can I find out how often my work is downloaded?

See the "Viewing statistics" section earlier in this guide for more information.

Is there funding for Gold OA?

Unfortunately, RGU does not have any funds to cover the costs of Gold Open Access. However, there are a variety of offset deals which may reduce or negate these costs. See our "Open Access: Going 'Gold'" guide for more information on these deals.