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APA Referencing

Journal articles



With one author



Author (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page reference. DOI, optional in student work



Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.


The citation in your text will be:

(Bandura, 1977)

or, if you have quoted directly,

(Bandura, 1977, p. 200).

If you have used the author's name in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if necessary, is placed after it in brackets, e.g.

Bandura (1977) suggests that ...

or, if you have quoted directly,

Bandura (1977, p. 200) states that ...

Other Examples


Journal article with 2 authors


Nairne, J. S. & Pandeirada, J. N. S. (2008). Adaptive memory: Remembering with a stone-age brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(4), 239-243.


(Nairne & Pandeirada, 2008) or Nairne and Pandeirada (2008)…

Journal article with 5 authors


Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G., Meyer, D. E. & Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4(6), 385-390.


(Gehring et al., 1993) or Gehring et al. (1993)…

Journal article with 9 authors


Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., Zuo, Y., Huggenvik, J. & Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6(2), 249-267.


…(Gilbert et al., 2004) or Gilbert et al. (2004)…

Journal article in advance online publication (no volume, issue or page numbers yet, they will be assigned later when a future issue is printed)


Hepworth, J., Schofield, T., Leontini, R. & Germov, J. (2018). Alcohol‐related harm minimization practices among university students: Does the type of residence have an impact? British Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication.


…(Hepworth et al., 2018) or …..Hepworth et al. (2018)…

Pre-print in online repository (e.g. PsyArXiv, arXiv, Open Science Framework [OSF] Pre-Prints, etc.).

A pre-print is a version of a paper before it has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in a journal; often they are currently in the submission process, but not always. Notice in this example that the article’s name is italicised, the name of the repository (PsyArXiv) is not in italics, and is followed by the DOI number. Such repositories nearly always assign articles a DOI number which link directly to the pre-print.


Nordmann, E., Kuepper-Tetzel, C., Robson, L., Phillipson, S., Lipan, G. & McGeorge, P. (2019). Lecture capture: Practical recommendations for students and instructors. PsyArXiv.


(Nordmann et al., 2019)… Or Nordmann et al. (2019)…

Article in online-only journal

For an online-only journal with no print version (usually open-access journals), reference as for any other journal as far as possible – you will find many still have what look like volume and (sometimes) issue numbers which are given on the article’s page and/or PDF version, but there may be no standard page numbers. Some journals (e.g. PLOS One) may give an electronic page number such as “e102786”. With an online-only journal, you should give the DOI number at the end, which acts as a link directly to the article. Nearly all online-only journals today give their articles DOI numbers. In the rare case that the article has no DOI number, give a URL to the journal’s homepage at the end of the reference as in If an e-journal does not give something (e.g. issue number) it is omitted from the reference. Examples follow:


Online-only open-access journal, volume number (no issue number) with “article number” (15) but no page numbers:

Reference: Hoffmann, R., Lagerkvist, C. J., Gustavsson M. H. & Holst, B. S. (2018). An empirical examination of the conceptualization of companion animals. BMC Psychology, 6(15).

Citation: (Hoffmann et al., 2018) or Hoffmann et al. (2018)…


Online-only open-access journal, volume and issue number and electronic page number:

Reference: Ertl, V., Pfeiffer, A., Schauer-Kaiser, E., Elbert, T. & Neuner, F. (2014). The challenge of living on: Psychopathology and its mediating influence on the readjustment of former child soldiers. PLoS One, 9 (7), e102786.

Citation: (Ertl et al., 2014) or Ertl et al. (2014)…


Online-only journal, volume and issue but no page numbers, no DOI number on article

Reference: Hubbard, R., Regan, K., Strath, A. & Vosper, H. (2015). The Big Issue: ergonomics in healthcare education. Communicare, 1(2).

Citation: (Hubbard et al., 2015) or … Hubbard et al. (2015)…