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APA Referencing

Pre-print or post-print



E-prints in online repository (e.g. PsyArXiv, arXiv, Open Science Framework [OSF] Pre-Prints, etc.).

An e-print is an online version of a paper that does not appear on a journal’s website or in final formatting.

The most common type is the pre-print: a version of a paper before it has been peer-reviewed or accepted for publication in a journal; often pre-prints are currently in the submission process, but not always.

A post-print has been peer-reviewed and may have been accepted for publication, but is not formatted in the journal’s style; it appears as a raw manuscript. Both pre-prints and post-prints may differ from the final version of the article in the journal.

Pre-prints are often found on online repositories such as PsyArXiv, arXiv, Open Science Framework Pre-Prints, or CogPrints. Post-prints are often found on university repositories (such as RGU’s OpenAir) or another online repository such as ERIC, the Open Science Framework, or a researcher’s ResearchGate profile. E-prints may sometimes be of a dissertation or book chapter, but are cited and referenced in the same way. The following example is a pre-print, but a post-print or other e-print is cited and referenced the same way. Notice in this example that the name of the repository (PsyArXiv) is not in italics, and is followed by the DOI number if available. The article title is italicised, but the name of the repository is not.



Nordmann, E., Kuepper-Tetzel, C., Robson, L., Phillipson, S., Lipan, G. & McGeorge, P. (2019). Lecture capture: Practical recommendations for students and instructors. PsyArXiv.


(Nordmann et al., 2019)…. Or Nordmann et al. (2019)…